Saturday, March 19, 2022
290 Canadian UFO documents released (sort of)
Headlines on #ufotwitter and some news outlets absolutely gushed with the news that Vice reporter and CTV journalist Daniel Otis had received 290 documents from the Canadian government as a result of his Access to Information (ATI) request (Canada's version of the American FOIA).
Otis has been doing a phenomenal job of filing requests and is the Canadian version of John Greenewald, spending hundreds of dollars and man-hours seeking UFO docs from the Canadian government. His success at obtaining previously-unreleased records about UFO sightings in Canada has been pretty darned good.
[Aside: in Canada, they are indeed called UFO, not UAP, despite what most people would like to think. Transport Canada has a category clearly labeled UFO, and report forms used by the Canadian Department of National Defence read "UFO Report" at the top of the page.]
Otis and I have been corresponding for a while now, ever since he started his interest in UFOs in 2020 and his first Vice articles appeared. He is also in contact with other ufologists and UFO fans, as well as individuals within media and government. He is well-situated to dig into matters relating to UFO phenomena.
He was able to get some very interesting documents and statements from spokespersons for National Defence as well as Transport Canada, obtaining details on how UFO reports are dealt with and collected in Canada. (And, incidentally, I am mentioned often in his Vice article, once even calling me "Canada's Point Man" for UFOs.)
His latest Vice article was very curious, because when he told me it was coming out and that he had hundreds of UFO docs from the government, I was puzzled. He had told me that I was mentioned in some of the documents, which made sense, because I have been receiving UFO reports from DND and other government sources since the year 2000. I have several hundred on file since that time, so the number 290 seemed strange. It should either be much greater or much smaller.
Otis made the entire set of documents he received available on the Vice website, much to the delight of UFO fans, many of whom heralded this as Disclosure. It's admirable that he made them all available for scrutiny.
But Disclosure, it ain't.
I took a hard look at the set of docs, and found an interesting breakdown. Out of 290 pages of documents, there were reports on 116 incidents. Many had more than one page, leading to the inflated number. Also, the last 30 pages of the set of documents was a list of about 500 Civil Aviation Daily Occurrence Reports (CADORS) compiled by Transport Canada and Nav Canada (the Canadian versions of the American FAA).
CADORS include everything from blown tires in landing to drunken passengers on flights, to errors in communication between pilots and air traffic controllers. There are between 50 to 100 such incidents reported each day in Canada. A small number are categorized as: Weather balloon, meteor, rocket, CIRVIS/UFO." These were what comprised the 500ish cases in the list. And yes, most were the first three in the description.
But within that list are indeed some strange reports of pilot sightings of UFOs that don't seem to have simple explanations. I have been including these reports every year in the annual Canadian UFO Survey, which analyses national UFO case data. And more recently, as new ones have been reported, I have been posting them to Facebook, and other social networks such as #ufotwitter, along with Otis and others who find the incidents in the daily lists of Transport Canada CADORS.
So the first red flag is that the incidents in this list had already been made public in a number of ways dating back to the year 2000.
The other 116 reports? Of those, all except 13 were the actual CADORS reports. They were already in the list of CADORS later in the set of documents.
Also, the earliest of these was from 2009, so the reports covered only about a dozen years, not 20 years. The 13 reports were military files, such as Communications Instructions for Reporting Vital Intelligence Sightings (CIRVIS), a category that dates back to JANAP 146, a policy created in 1953 directing both Canadian and American pilots to report all "unidentified flying objects." I had already made the existence of most of these public, even at some UFO conferences and public presentations, on slides.
Finally, it has to be noted that, like all collections of UFO reports, the vast majority have probable explanations, and don't contain any proof that UFOs are alien spacecraft (as a significant number of UFO fans believe).
With this examination of the 290 documents, it is obvious this wasn't Disclosure (or even disclosure).
It was definitely interesting, however, because Otis' ATI request for UFO documents generated this set of files that were indeed categorized as UFOs by the Canadian government. Furthermore, many of these were reports of observations by pilots or air traffic controllers (or radar operators), who can be considered pretty good observers. (There were also quite a few reports from citizens who reported UFOs to airports; I have described how the average person can report UFOs to Transport Canada in a recent blog.)
The reaction from hardcore UFO cans and zealots was fairly predictable, however. "Why hasn't the mainstream media reported on this?" "Why didn't this get more attention from anyone?"
The reason is, of course, because the "release" of the 290 documents wasn't a release, but a response to a specific ATI request, so it wasn't disclosure of anything. Plus, the reports released don't show anything other than objects were seen by pilots and non-pilots, and most of these objects had explanations. Further, even the truly unidentified ones don't explicitly implicate aliens - or even a foreign power operating over North America.
That's not to say that some cases weren't curious.
For example, CADORS case 2017P1732 (which had been made public that same year), noted that just north of Prince Rupert, BC, at 3:40 pm local time on September 3, 2017:
A concerned citizen reported a black object the size and shape of a rugby ball moved quickly west to east above their house, less than 100 feet above the ground. Area control centre (ACC) Shift Manager was advised.
There was even an update on file:
2017-09-14: UPDATE: CIRVIS REPORT from CZVR: During daylight hours and as a ground visual, a black volleyball sized oblong object was seen near East Digby Island. The object was moving west to east and moving fast enough to make sound. The object was moving straight with no manoeuvres.
Both the CADORS and the CIRVIS report were provided to Otis, one of the few instances where that was so.
A black Tic-Tac? Go figure.
Even better in my opinion was CADORS 2014O0421, which happened on March 3, 2014, at about 4 pm local time.
At approximately 2100Z, a Piper PA-23-250 on a local flight from Burlington, ON (CZBA) was outbound (north eastbound) on the simulated LOC 30 approach at three thousand feet. When crossing the Binbrook non-directional beacon (NDB) (5.7 nm from CYHM airport), the pilot reported seeing an object pass under them at approximately 2,900 ft westbound, jelly bean shaped, green in colour and about 3 feet in diameter. The pilot stated that it was not a balloon and that if it were a balloon it would have been going in the same direction as [the plane] as the wind direction was 300 at 15 knots. The object was going in the opposite direction to the wind.
I guess that Tic-Tacs can be green as well as black or white. (Although three feet in size is much smaller than the one that buzzed the jets in California.)
Otis has been posting many of these CADORS cases and associated documents on social media for more than a year, and UFO fans have been digging them.
I've been posting about Canadian government UFO docs (and posting the docs themselves) for decades. I even have showed slides of them to audiences at some UFO conventions and other public meetings, as noted above.
Like this one, from June 5, 2009.
Or this one, seen and reported by an experienced meteorologist in Canada's Far North, also in 2009:
The fact is that there is considerable documentation that the Canadian government has information on unidentified flying objects seen by pilots and other good observers.
Daniel Otis has done good work in making this known to adherents of ufology.
Sunday, January 30, 2022
Where do I report my UFO sighting?
Where do I report my UFO sighting?
So, you think you’ve seen a UFO! Congratulations!
Well, you’ve joined a somewhat exclusive club. Surveys and statistical studies have suggested that one out of every ten North Americans has seen a UFO. There are reports on record from a very broad spectrum of people, from pilots to farmers, and from children to seniors, all genders, from coast to coast to coast (to coast).
The difference is that this data comes from UFO reports, and you haven’t reported your sighting yet.
Other surveys have shown that only one in ten of all UFO witnesses will ever bother to make a formal report of a sighting, so that means you have to decide if you want to file one or not.
But how? And to whom, or which organization?
Unfortunately, there isn’t one central location to report a UFO. This, despite the apparent huge amount of interest and publicity and media attention to the subject. But the fundamental basis for ufology is the UFO report itself, and there’s not much being done to gather this actual data, upon which is built all the speculation concerning UAP propulsion, physical composition, and (by ET believers) the aliens themselves.
I found that Googling “How do I report a UFO” generates five answers.
The first is “UFO Daddy”, which directs you to the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), a private organization of UFO fans that trains teams of Field Investigators (FIs) to investigate your UFO sighting.
The second hit is a UFO FAQ on HubPages, which first notes: “According to NASA’s web page, you should report UFO sightings to 911, or your local emergency number. However, there is no official government agency that is responsible for investigating sightings.” However, the web page in question has nothing to do with UFOs and the original must have been deleted long ago. Curiously, if you search for “UFO” on that NASA web page, you get one link that is to an explanation about how an unusual object photographed during Apollo 16 was actually a long boom and floodlight attached to the spacecraft. But with no relevance to a typical UFO sighting.
The other three answers are garbage UFO sites with general comments from readers.
It seems like the first option is the best: MUFON. If you go to its website, you can find a link to a page for reporting a UFO to them.
Oh, wait, what about the suggestion to reporting UFO sightings to 911? That’s a very reasonable possibility. After all, that way you can lodge a formal complaint and you know that police do have investigators that will do something about it. Maybe you should do that first.
Or not. Because calling 911 about a UFO sighting may take an emergency responder away from a call about a medical emergency or a heinous crime in progress. No, don’t do that.
That site also noted that “there is no official government agency that is responsible for investigating sightings.”
But haven’t we heard in the media and news recently that there is such an agency? Wouldn’t it be better to report a UFO sighting to an official body?
I guess so, but how, exactly? NASA seems uninterested, despite what we found. What about the air force?
The USAF website says the following: “Persons wishing to report UFO sightings should be advised to contact local law enforcement agencies.”
That’s funny. I thought the USAF had a task force to investigate UFOs (or UAPs, as they are called now, apparently).
Oh, it’s the US Navy is going to be investigating UFOs. But there’s no indication of how they will collecting UFO or UAP data, nor how an average citizen can report a sighting. In fact, Pentagon’s Task Force on UAPs issued its first report and noted that only a relative handful of military UAP sightings were studied. (Only 144, to be exact.) Its report noted that its investigation: “…remains limited to USG reporting.”
So although the Department of Defense is going to be studying UFO/UAP reports to see if any are a threat to national security, they aren’t interested in your personal sighting. But you might try anyway, by emailing the USAF with your sighting details. Otherwise, maybe do what the USAF suggests, and report your sighting to your local police.
Good luck with that.
Okay, what about other UFO groups and organizations?
Absolutely. Many are very eager to get your sighting reports. Many have websites with online forms to fill out.
A significant one is the National UFO Reporting Center (NUFORC), based in Washington State. They get many hundreds of cases each year reported to them, and their info is open to the public, unlike MUFON, whose case reports are private. So if you want others to know what you saw, NUFORC is a good option.
Another is UFOs Northwest, originally devoted to the American Northwest, but now accepting reports from all around the world. They also post details of everyone’s UFO sightings and allow for comments and letters.
A group with a good website is UFO Hunters. They are exactly what they say they are, a group of people dedicated to searching for UFOs, and readily acknowledge the work of NUFORC and MUFON. UFO Hunters has an added bonus of providing an interactive map that shows UFO activity around the world, and has a searchable index.
The group with historically the best record is the Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS). It was the creation of the “Grandfather of Ufology,” Dr. J. Allen Hynek, who worked with the USAF and then went rogue, saying that the USAF ignored all the good cases.
Of course, other countries have their own UFO groups and organizations, all of which accept UFO sighting reports. The largest of these is the British UFO Research Association (BUFORA). In Italy, there’s the Centro Italiano Studi Ufologici (CISU), and they have an online UFO report form you can email to them. A French group, Groupe d'Études et d'Informations sur les Phénomènes Aérospatiaux Non-identifiés (GEIPAN), is very active and has an interactive website where you can not only report your UFO sighting, but also triage it, so you might be able to yourself identify what you saw. There are other groups around the world, and you can search for them online. (Here’s what Wikipedia says.)
In North America, both Canada and Mexico also have groups that investigate UFOs. Canada is particularly of interest, because not only are there civilian UFO groups, but its government also has taken an interest in UFOs.
The Canadian UFO Survey has been cataloguing UFO sightings there for more than 30 years. An online web form can send them your report if you see one in Canada. There’s a second form to reach them on a podcast website.
The Canadian UFO Survey includes sightings reported to a host of other groups in Canada, such as UFOBC, Quebec based groups such as Groupe d’assistance et de recherche sur les phénomènes aérospatiaux non-identifiés (GARPAN) and Association Québécoise d’Ufologie (AQU), plus Canadian cases reported to MUFON and NUFORC.
The Canadian UFO Survey also includes reports of UFOs made to the Canadian government. This includes Transport Canada, the Canadian equivalent of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Pilots are required to report UFOs as per “AIP CANADA Part 2 - Enroute (ENR)”:
“Communication Instructions for Reporting Vital Intelligence Sightings (CIRVIS) reports should be made immediately upon a vital intelligence sighting of any airborne and ground objects or activities that appear to be hostile, suspicious, unidentified or engaged in possible illegal smuggling activity. Examples of events requiring CIRVIS reports are: unidentified flying objects…” (https://www.navcanada.ca/en/2enreng27january2022.pdf) (Retrieved 29 January 2022)
In addition to pilots, civilians have been known to file UFO reports as “Aviation Incidents,” and there is separate form for drone incidents. (Drones have been blamed for many UFO sightings.) These incident reports usually are available as Civil Aviation Daily Occurrence Reporting System (CADORS). The justification for reporting UFOs is broadly interpreted as: “Any occurrence which may generate a high degree of public interest or concern or could be of direct interest to specific foreign air authorities.”
In regard to the FAA in the USA, all its website says regarding reports of UFOs is that: “Persons wanting to report UFO/unexplained phenomena activity should contact a UFO/ unexplained phenomena reporting data collection center, such as the National UFO Reporting Center, etc.” and “If concern is expressed that life or property might be endangered, report the activity to the local law enforcement department.” The FAA equivalent to the Transport Canada incident report seems to be FAA 8020-23. (You can report a drone to the FAA too.)
It is interesting to note that the FAA Order 8020.11D has a section on “Spacecraft incidents," which can be investigated under Chapter 7(8)e, noting that: “the Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation (AST) has the authority to conduct independent investigations parallel to an NTSB investigation, including, but not limited to the following: (1) Accidents not investigated by the NTSB. (2) Incidents or other identified mishaps.” So I suppose technically, the FAA could investigate UFO reports under this Order.
But I digress.
Finally, one has to acknowledge that social media is possibly the best way to share your UFO sighting with others. In theory, it’s the most efficient; if all states and provinces had their own separate Facebook groups for reporting UFOs, it would be a tremendous boost to UFO/UAP investigations. Unfortunately, UFO information on social media is in a state akin to the Wild West, with disparate groups that have conflicting agendas controlling the discourse.
Yet, one can find pockets of interactions that have useful information.
In Canada, for example, there are Facebook groups where witnesses in specific provinces report their sightings and others are able to comment (and criticize and flame, unfortunately). The same is true of most US States.
You can find many, many UFO videos posted on YouTube (just search for them), but beware of misinformation and sensational channels that exploit believers.
Possible one of the better sources of UFO info on social media is Reddit, where subreddits on specific UFO topics can provide good insight. In fact, the subreddit lists some way to report your UFO sighting, including: the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena (NARCAP) (which has info for pilots to report their UFO sightings); MUFON; The Black Vault; and Aerial Phenomena Investigations (API), which also accepts UFO sighting reports. (In fact, API notes that: “It’s fine to report your sighting to NUFORC, but raw, uninvestigated sightings have very little weight on their own.”)
The other organization mentioned, The Black Vault, is a site created by UFO researcher John Greenewald, whose primary interest is retrieving government documents on various topics, many of which are UFO-related. Nevertheless, his site has a link for reporting UFO sightings, conducted by TBV Investigations (operated by Tiffany Hahn, a licenced private investigator with an interest in the paranormal.)
In other social media, there are some UFO groups and researchers on Twitter, such as the aforementioned UFO Hunters, among many others. Also, many people post Tweets with the hashtag #ufotwitter, which has dozens and dozens of Tweets posted every day.
One thing to consider is that despite the many groups mentioned so far that have links to UFO reporting forms and mechanisms, some may not have the resources or capabilities to investigate UFO reports. You may live hundreds or thousands of miles away from where a group’s investigators live, and how would they visit you and examine where the UFO was seen or landed?
Finally, it’s worth noting that if you see a UFO and report it, your observation may not be considered as useful data for “solving the UFO mystery” at all. The UAPTF doesn’t seem to be interested in civilian UFO reports, just those experienced by military personnel and perhaps recorded by radar and video. The recently formed Galileo Project, which includes a lot of scientists who are interested in the UFO phenomenon, is not interested in the average UFO report. Its founder has been quoted as saying that: “...the best sightings would be those that did not involve humans. He wanted instruments to collect the data without human interaction. He wanted to remove errors that were often generated by human perception and human bias.”
So there you have it. It’s not that there are no ways to report your UFO sighting – it’s that there are so many options. Do you want your report to go the government for its UFO/UAP study? Do you want your report to go to a private UFO group? Do you want to share your UFO/UAP experience with others? MUFON has recently made its database completely closed to non-subscribers, so it’s not open for public viewing, but maybe it’s worth it for you to open your wallet or purse and join them in their quest to understand UFOs. NUFORC might be a good bet for sharing your UFO experience and allowing others to read about what you’ve seen, if that’s your goal.
Maybe you should take care in observing the UFO, noting all relevant details such as those listed on UFO reporting forms, and hang onto your information. Perhaps start a “UFO diary” to record your sighting(s).
Regardless of what you decide, you’re not alone. (No, I’m not necessarily talking about aliens visiting Earth.) Polls and studies have suggested there are at least 35 million people in the United States alone who believe they have seen a UFO.
It’s now up to you.
[NB: All URLs were live as of January 29, 2022. Special thanks for Curt Collins and Ralph Howard for their comments and insight. Thanks also to Mark Rodeghier and Isaac Koi.]
Monday, January 24, 2022
Scientific and scholarly articles about UFOs
The ufological world was all agog recently when it was announced that an article about UFOs was being published in a peer-reviewed academic journal.
Amazing! Remarkable! Notable! Unprecedented!
Uh - no.
Despite what you may have heard from skeptics and believers alike, science has taken the subject of UFOs seriously on many, many occasions. Dozens of scholarly and academic articles have appeared in peer-reviewed journals all along, with apparently little notice or interest.
Admittedly, many of these articles looked at ufology in a less than positive light, but a considerable number regarded the subject quite seriously and as a topic of scientific curiosity, if not interest and with relevance to many scientific realms.
I started working on a list of academic articles about UFOs some time ago, and I dusted it off (virtually) when the interest in the recent scientific article manifested.
A number of people have created lists of these articles over the years, including most notably Barry Greenwood's "Union Catalog" of UFO articles. Isaac Koi has a very good list of academic journal articles, and I have added to my own list from his excellent resource.
The following is my list, which is as complete as I could get at this time. I have provided links to online versions of the articles whenever possible, although some links will require institutional memberships to view the articles in full.
The list is for articles about UFOs, but you will note that I have included some articles on UFO-ish phenomena as well, with discretion.
Also, the list does not include book reviews, editorial comments, news briefs and incidental notes, although I allowed a few in the list for their significance. So, while references to things in major journals such as Nature and Science could have been included dozens and dozens of times, these were not really "peer-reviewed academic or scholarly articles."
Oh, and I did not include articles from the Journal of Scientific Exploration nor the Journal of UFO Studies. While certainly peer-reviewed, these journals are not in the scientific mainstream community, and I wanted to create a list that showed that scientists outside of the ufology community have published such articles.
I used APA style, with a slight modification here and there for consistency. (I know there are many punctuation typos, so I'm working on that.) I also need to italicize the journal titles.
And yes, I am sure I missed some. This page will be updated as more articles are brought to my attention, and as future articles are published. (Which they certainly will be.)
Many thanks to Isaac for his work and assistance in this effort.
Top UFO-related articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals
Appelle, S. (1971). On a behavioral explanation of UFO sightings. Perceptual and motor skills, 32(3), 994. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19184.108.40.2064
Ashworth, C. E. (1980). Flying saucers, spoon-bending and Atlantis: A structural analysis of new mythologies. The Sociological Review, 28(2), 353-376. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1980.tb00369.x
Bader, C. D. (1995). The UFO contact movement from the 1950s to the present. Studies in Popular Culture, 17(2), 73-90. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23413704
Bader, C. D. (2003). Supernatural support groups: Who are the UFO abductees and ritual-abuse survivors? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42(4), 669–678. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1387914
Balch, Robert W. and Taylor, David. (1977). Seekers and saucers: The role of the cultic milieu in joining a UFO cult. American Behavioral Scientist, 20(6), pp. 839–860.
Banaji, M. R., and Kihlstrom, J. F. (1996). The ordinary nature of alien abduction memories. Psychological Inquiry, 7(2), 132-135. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327965pli0702_3
Bartholomew, R. E. (1991). The quest for transcendence: An ethnography of UFOs in America. Anthropology of Consciousness, 2(1‐2), 1-12. https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1525/ac.1991.2.1-2.1
Biasco, F., and Nunn, K. (2000). College students' attitudes toward UFOs. College Student Journal, 34(1), 96-100. https://web.s.ebscohost.com/abstract?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=01463934&asa=Y&AN=3024751&h=pFaSTQdViVWKO7mTAFbM9G6qBJCEjXdumNK2EVMo%2bub0Tb3nTDmIHDsb1jWM00XAupyJvrLSUvPRVii%2fIAz2qg%3d%3d&crl=c&resultNs=AdminWebAuth&resultLocal=ErrCrlNotAuth&crlhashurl=login.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26profile%3dehost%26scope%3dsite%26authtype%3dcrawler%26jrnl%3d01463934%26asa%3dY%26AN%3d3024751
Bisson C, and Persinger M.A. (1993). Geophysical variables and behavior: LXXV. Possible increased incidence of brain tumors following an episode of luminous phenomena. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 77(3_suppl), 1088-1090. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.2466/pms.1993.77.3f.1088
Bowers, K. S., and Eastwood, J. D. (1996). On the edge of science: Coping with UFOlogy scientifically. Psychological Inquiry, 7(2), 136-140. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327965pli0702_4
Bridgstock, M. (1982). A sociological approach to fraud in science. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, 18(3), 364-383.
Bullard, T. E. (1989). UFO abduction reports: the supernatural kidnap narrative returns in technological guise. Journal of American Folklore, 147-170. https://www.jstor.org/stable/540677
Callahan, P. S., & Mankin, R. W. (1978). Insects as unidentified flying objects. Applied optics, 17(21), 3355-3360.
Chequers, J., Joseph, S., and Diduca, D. (1997). Belief in extraterrestrial life, UFO-related beliefs, and schizotypal personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 23(3), 519-521. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0191886997800189
Clamar, A. (1988). Is it time for psychology to take UFOs seriously? Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 6(3), 143-149. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J294v06n03_23
Clamar, A. (1988). Symposium: The UFO experience: What psychotherapy tells us. Introduction, in: Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 6:3, 141-142
Clancy, S. A., et. al. (2002). Memory distortion in people reporting abduction by aliens. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111(3), 455.
Clark, S. E., and Loftus, E. F. (1996). The construction of space alien abduction memories. Psychological Inquiry, 7(2), 140-143. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327965pli0702_5
Cole, G. H. A. (1996). Thoughts on extraterrestrials prompted by two contributions in a recent issue of Quarterly Journal. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 37, 257. https://adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1996QJRAS..37..257C
Condon, E. U. (1969). UFOs I have loved and lost. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 25(10), 6-8. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00963402.1969.11455289
Cook, C. M., and Persinger, M. A. (2001). Geophysical variables and behavior: XCII. Experimental elicitation of the experience of a sentient being by right hemispheric, weak magnetic fields: interaction with temporal lobe sensitivity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 92(2), 447-448.
Cross, A. (2004). The flexibility of scientific rhetoric: A case study of UFO researchers. Qualitative Sociology, 27(1), 3-34. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/B:QUAS.0000015542.28438.41
Crowe, R. A., and Miura, C. K. (1995). Challenging pseudoscientific beliefs: Surveying evidence for exotic claims. Psychological reports, 77(3_suppl), 1263-1282. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.2466/pr0.1995.77.3f.1263
Crumbaugh, J. C. (1959). ESP and flying saucers: A challenge to parapsychologists. American Psychologist, 14(9), 604–606. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0039416
Curtis, E. (2016). Science and technology in Elijah Muhammad’s Nation of Islam astrophysical disaster, genetic engineering, UFOs, white apocalypse, and black resurrection. Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, 20(1), 5–31.
Davis, Lorraine. (1988). A Comparison of UFO and Near-Death Experiences as Vehicles for the Evolution of Human Consciousness. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6(4), 240-257. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc799343/
Derr J.S, and Persinger M.A. (1993). Geophysical variables and behavior: LXXVI. Seasonal hydrological load and regional luminous phenomena (UFO reports) within river systems, the Mississippi Valley test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 77(3_suppl), 1163-1170. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.2466/pms.1993.77.3f.1163
Devereux, P., McCartney, P. and Robins, D. (1983). Bringing UFOs down to earth. New Scientist, (1 September), 627-630.
Dewan, W. J. (2006). " A saucerful of secrets": an interdisciplinary analysis of UFO experiences. Journal of American Folklore, 184-202. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4137923
Dodd, A. (2018). Strategic ignorance and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence: Critiquing the discursive segregation of UFOs from scientific inquiry. Astropolitics, 16(1), 75-95. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14777622.2018.1433409
Eghigian, G. (2014). ‘A transatlantic buzz’: flying saucers, extraterrestrials and America in postwar Germany. Journal of transatlantic studies, 12(3), 282-303. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1080/14794012.2014.928032
Eghigian, G. (2014). The psychiatrist, the aliens, and" going native". Psychiatric Times, 31(11), 10-10. https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA389176236&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=abs&issn=08932905&p=AONE&sw=w&userGroupName=anon%7E99592cf7
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