Sunday, January 30, 2022


Where do I report my UFO sighting?


Where do I report my UFO sighting?


So, you think you’ve seen a UFO! Congratulations!

Now what?

Well, you’ve joined a somewhat exclusive club. Surveys and statistical studies have suggested that one out of every ten North Americans has seen a UFO. There are reports on record from a very broad spectrum of people, from pilots to farmers, and from children to seniors, all genders, from coast to coast to coast (to coast).

The difference is that this data comes from UFO reports, and you haven’t reported your sighting yet.

Other surveys have shown that only one in ten of all UFO witnesses will ever bother to make a formal report of a sighting, so that means you have to decide if you want to file one or not.

But how? And to whom, or which organization?

Unfortunately, there isn’t one central location to report a UFO. This, despite the apparent huge amount of interest and publicity and media attention to the subject. But the fundamental basis for ufology is the UFO report itself, and there’s not much being done to gather this actual data, upon which is built all the speculation concerning UAP propulsion, physical composition, and (by ET believers) the aliens themselves.

I found that Googling “How do I report a UFO” generates five answers.

The first is “UFO Daddy”, which directs you to the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), a private organization of UFO fans that trains teams of Field Investigators (FIs) to investigate your UFO sighting.

The second hit is a UFO FAQ on HubPages, which first notes: “According to NASA’s web page, you should report UFO sightings to 911, or your local emergency number. However, there is no official government agency that is responsible for investigating sightings.” However, the web page in question has nothing to do with UFOs and the original must have been deleted long ago. Curiously, if you search for “UFO” on that NASA web page, you get one link that is to an explanation about how an unusual object photographed during Apollo 16 was actually a long boom and floodlight attached to the spacecraft. But with no relevance to a typical UFO sighting.

The other three answers are garbage UFO sites with general comments from readers.

It seems like the first option is the best: MUFON. If you go to its website, you can find a link to a page for reporting a UFO to them.


Oh, wait, what about the suggestion to reporting UFO sightings to 911? That’s a very reasonable possibility. After all, that way you can lodge a formal complaint and you know that police do have investigators that will do something about it. Maybe you should do that first.

Or not. Because calling 911 about a UFO sighting may take an emergency responder away from a call about a medical emergency or a heinous crime in progress. No, don’t do that.

That site also noted that “there is no official government agency that is responsible for investigating sightings.”

But haven’t we heard in the media and news recently that there is such an agency? Wouldn’t it be better to report a UFO sighting to an official body?

I guess so, but how, exactly? NASA seems uninterested, despite what we found. What about the air force?

The USAF website says the following: “Persons wishing to report UFO sightings should be advised to contact local law enforcement agencies.”

That’s funny. I thought the USAF had a task force to investigate UFOs (or UAPs, as they are called now, apparently).

Oh, it’s the US Navy is going to be investigating UFOs. But there’s no indication of how they will collecting UFO or UAP data, nor how an average citizen can report a sighting. In fact, Pentagon’s Task Force on UAPs issued its first report and noted that only a relative handful of military UAP sightings were studied. (Only 144, to be exact.) Its report noted that its investigation: “…remains limited to USG reporting.”

So although the Department of Defense is going to be studying UFO/UAP reports to see if any are a threat to national security, they aren’t interested in your personal sighting. But you might try anyway, by emailing the USAF with your sighting details. Otherwise, maybe do what the USAF suggests, and report your sighting to your local police.

Good luck with that.

Okay, what about other UFO groups and organizations?

Absolutely. Many are very eager to get your sighting reports. Many have websites with online forms to fill out.

A significant one is the National UFO Reporting Center (NUFORC), based in Washington State. They get many hundreds of cases each year reported to them, and their info is open to the public, unlike MUFON, whose case reports are private. So if you want others to know what you saw, NUFORC is a good option.

Another is UFOs Northwest, originally devoted to the American Northwest, but now accepting reports from all around the world. They also post details of everyone’s UFO sightings and allow for comments and letters.

A group with a good website is UFO Hunters. They are exactly what they say they are, a group of people dedicated to searching for UFOs, and readily acknowledge the work of NUFORC and MUFON. UFO Hunters has an added bonus of providing an interactive map that shows UFO activity around the world, and has a searchable index.

The group with historically the best record is the Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS). It was the creation of the “Grandfather of Ufology,” Dr. J. Allen Hynek, who worked with the USAF and then went rogue, saying that the USAF ignored all the good cases.

Of course, other countries have their own UFO groups and organizations, all of which accept UFO sighting reports. The largest of these is the British UFO Research Association (BUFORA). In Italy, there’s the Centro Italiano Studi Ufologici (CISU), and they have an online UFO report form you can email to them. A French group, Groupe d'Études et d'Informations sur les Phénomènes Aérospatiaux Non-identifiés (GEIPAN), is very active and has an interactive website where you can not only report your UFO sighting, but also triage it, so you might be able to yourself identify what you saw. There are other groups around the world, and you can search for them online. (Here’s what Wikipedia says.)

In North America, both Canada and Mexico also have groups that investigate UFOs. Canada is particularly of interest, because not only are there civilian UFO groups, but its government also has taken an interest in UFOs.

The Canadian UFO Survey has been cataloguing UFO sightings there for more than 30 years. An online web form can send them your report if you see one in Canada. There’s a second form to reach them on a podcast website.

The Canadian UFO Survey includes sightings reported to a host of other groups in Canada, such as UFOBC, Quebec based groups such as Groupe d’assistance et de recherche sur les phénomènes aérospatiaux non-identifiés (GARPAN) and Association Québécoise d’Ufologie (AQU), plus Canadian cases reported to MUFON and NUFORC.

The Canadian UFO Survey also includes reports of UFOs made to the Canadian government. This includes Transport Canada, the Canadian equivalent of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Pilots are required to report UFOs as per “AIP CANADA Part 2 - Enroute (ENR)”:

“Communication Instructions for Reporting Vital Intelligence Sightings (CIRVIS) reports should be made immediately upon a vital intelligence sighting of any airborne and ground objects or activities that appear to be hostile, suspicious, unidentified or engaged in possible illegal smuggling activity. Examples of events requiring CIRVIS reports are: unidentified flying objects…” ( (Retrieved 29 January 2022)

In addition to pilots, civilians have been known to file UFO reports as “Aviation Incidents,” and there is separate form for drone incidents. (Drones have been blamed for many UFO sightings.) These incident reports usually are available as Civil Aviation Daily Occurrence Reporting System (CADORS). The justification for reporting UFOs is broadly interpreted as: “Any occurrence which may generate a high degree of public interest or concern or could be of direct interest to specific foreign air authorities.”

In regard to the FAA in the USA, all its website says regarding reports of UFOs is that: “Persons wanting to report UFO/unexplained phenomena activity should contact a UFO/ unexplained phenomena reporting data collection center, such as the National UFO Reporting Center, etc.” and “If concern is expressed that life or property might be endangered, report the activity to the local law enforcement department.” The FAA equivalent to the Transport Canada incident report seems to be FAA 8020-23. (You can report a drone to the FAA too.)

It is interesting to note that the FAA Order 8020.11D has a section on “Spacecraft incidents," which can be investigated under Chapter 7(8)e, noting that: “the Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation (AST) has the authority to conduct independent investigations parallel to an NTSB investigation, including, but not limited to the following: (1) Accidents not investigated by the NTSB. (2) Incidents or other identified mishaps.” So I suppose technically, the FAA could investigate UFO reports under this Order.

But I digress.

Finally, one has to acknowledge that social media is possibly the best way to share your UFO sighting with others. In theory, it’s the most efficient; if all states and provinces had their own separate Facebook groups for reporting UFOs, it would be a tremendous boost to UFO/UAP investigations. Unfortunately, UFO information on social media is in a state akin to the Wild West, with disparate groups that have conflicting agendas controlling the discourse.

Yet, one can find pockets of interactions that have useful information.

In Canada, for example, there are Facebook groups where witnesses in specific provinces report their sightings and others are able to comment (and criticize and flame, unfortunately). The same is true of most US States.

You can find many, many UFO videos posted on YouTube (just search for them), but beware of misinformation and sensational channels that exploit believers.

Possible one of the better sources of UFO info on social media is Reddit, where subreddits on specific UFO topics can provide good insight. In fact, the subreddit lists some way to report your UFO sighting, including: the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena (NARCAP) (which has info for pilots to report their UFO sightings); MUFON; The Black Vault; and Aerial Phenomena Investigations (API), which also accepts UFO sighting reports. (In fact, API notes that: “It’s fine to report your sighting to NUFORC, but raw, uninvestigated sightings have very little weight on their own.”)

The other organization mentioned, The Black Vault, is a site created by UFO researcher John Greenewald, whose primary interest is retrieving government documents on various topics, many of which are UFO-related. Nevertheless, his site has a link for reporting UFO sightings, conducted by TBV Investigations (operated by Tiffany Hahn, a licenced private investigator with an interest in the paranormal.)

In other social media, there are some UFO groups and researchers on Twitter, such as the aforementioned UFO Hunters, among many others. Also, many people post Tweets with the hashtag #ufotwitter, which has dozens and dozens of Tweets posted every day.

One thing to consider is that despite the many groups mentioned so far that have links to UFO reporting forms and mechanisms, some may not have the resources or capabilities to investigate UFO reports. You may live hundreds or thousands of miles away from where a group’s investigators live, and how would they visit you and examine where the UFO was seen or landed?

Finally, it’s worth noting that if you see a UFO and report it, your observation may not be considered as useful data for “solving the UFO mystery” at all. The UAPTF doesn’t seem to be interested in civilian UFO reports, just those experienced by military personnel and perhaps recorded by radar and video. The recently formed Galileo Project, which includes a lot of scientists who are interested in the UFO phenomenon, is not interested in the average UFO report. Its founder has been quoted as saying that: “...the best sightings would be those that did not involve humans. He wanted instruments to collect the data without human interaction. He wanted to remove errors that were often generated by human perception and human bias.”

So there you have it. It’s not that there are no ways to report your UFO sighting – it’s that there are so many options. Do you want your report to go the government for its UFO/UAP study? Do you want your report to go to a private UFO group? Do you want to share your UFO/UAP experience with others? MUFON has recently made its database completely closed to non-subscribers, so it’s not open for public viewing, but maybe it’s worth it for you to open your wallet or purse and join them in their quest to understand UFOs. NUFORC might be a good bet for sharing your UFO experience and allowing others to read about what you’ve seen, if that’s your goal.

Maybe you should take care in observing the UFO, noting all relevant details such as those listed on UFO reporting forms, and hang onto your information. Perhaps start a “UFO diary” to record your sighting(s).

Regardless of what you decide, you’re not alone. (No, I’m not necessarily talking about aliens visiting Earth.) Polls and studies have suggested there are at least 35 million people in the United States alone who believe they have seen a UFO.

It’s now up to you.

[NB: All URLs were live as of January 29, 2022. Special thanks for Curt Collins and Ralph Howard for their comments and insight. Thanks also to Mark Rodeghier and Isaac Koi.]


Monday, January 24, 2022


Scientific and scholarly articles about UFOs


The ufological world was all agog recently when it was announced that an article about UFOs was being published in a peer-reviewed academic journal.

Amazing! Remarkable! Notable! Unprecedented!

Uh - no.

Despite what you may have heard from skeptics and believers alike, science has taken the subject of UFOs seriously on many, many occasions. Dozens of scholarly and academic articles have appeared in peer-reviewed journals all along, with apparently little notice or interest.

Admittedly, many of these articles looked at ufology in a less than positive light, but a considerable number regarded the subject quite seriously and as a topic of scientific curiosity, if not interest and with relevance to many scientific realms.

I started working on a list of academic articles about UFOs some time ago, and I dusted it off (virtually) when the interest in the recent scientific article manifested.

A number of people have created lists of these articles over the years, including most notably Barry Greenwood's "Union Catalog" of UFO articles. Isaac Koi has a very good list of academic journal articles, and I have added to my own list from his excellent resource.

The following is my list, which is as complete as I could get at this time. I have provided links to online versions of the articles whenever possible, although some links will require institutional memberships to view the articles in full. 

The list is for articles about UFOs, but you will note that I have included some articles on UFO-ish phenomena as well, with discretion.

Also, I should note that this list is not restricted to Q1 and Q2 ranked journals, but others of lower academic rankings which I believe should be read and considered for their scientific approach. Many are written by scientists for lay audiences.

Also, the list does not include many book reviews, editorial comments, news briefs and incidental notes, although I allowed a few in the list for their significance. So, while references to things in major journals such as Nature and Science could have been included dozens and dozens of times, these were not really "peer-reviewed academic or scholarly articles."

Oh, and I did not include many articles from the Journal of Scientific Exploration nor the Journal of UFO Studies. While certainly peer-reviewed, these journals are not in the scientific mainstream community, and I wanted to create a list that showed that scientists outside of the ufology community have published such articles.

I have included papers published in journals with lesser pedigree to show the parallel discourses in other publications that are worth examining. Many of those are published by scientists or people with recognized academic degrees and backgrounds.
This list is meant to be a resource to show scientific discourse on the subject. And most scientists are unaware of the bulk of good scientific articles on UAP and UFOs.

I used APA style, with a slight modification here and there for consistency. (I know there are many punctuation typos, so I'm working on that.) I also need to italicize the journal titles.

And yes, I am sure I missed some. This page will be updated as more articles are brought to my attention, and as future articles are published. (Which they certainly will be.)

Many thanks to Isaac for his work and assistance in this effort.


Significant UFO-related articles, including many published in peer-reviewed scientific journals


Ailleris, P. [2011]. The lure of local SETI: Fifty years of field experiments. Acta Astronautica 68, 2.


Akers, D. W. (1972). Report on the Investigation of Nocturnal Light Phenomena at Toppenish, Washington, August 1972.


Akers, D. W. [1974]. Investigation of nocturnal light phenomena 1973 sighting reports from Toppenish, Washington.


Akers, D. W. (1995). A Statistical Summary of Reports from the Toppenish UFO Study.


Akers, D. W. [2001]. Preliminary report on magnetic field measurements recorded at Satus fire lookout – July 11, 2001.”


Akers, D. W. (2001). Nocturnal light phenomena on the Yakama Indian Reservation - An update for people working and living in the area. The Willard J. Vogel Study, Yakama, Washington.


Akers, D. W. [2007]. The Toppenish Field Study: A Technical Review and Update. 7th Bienniel European Society for Scientific Exploration Meeting, Roros, Norway. 

Ananthaswamy , A. (2020). How Many Aliens Are in the Milky Way? Astronomers Turn to Statistics for Answers. Scientific American,

Andresen, Jensine. (2021). Two Elephants in the Room of Astrobiology. In: Torres, Octavio, et al. (eds.). Astrobiology: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy.

Anton, A. (2019). UFO research. In: Mayer, G. (ed.). N equals 1: Single case studies in anomalistics. (pp.133–150). 

Anton, Andreas and Vugrin, Fabian. (2022). “UFOs exist and everyone needs to adjust to that fact.” (Dis)Information Campaigns on the UFO Phenomenon. Journal of Anomalistics, 22, pp. 18–35.

Antonio, Fernando, et al. (2022). On the dynamics of reporting data: A case study of UFO sightings. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 603(1), 127807.

Appelle, S. (1971). On a behavioral explanation of UFO sightings. Perceptual and motor skills, 32(3), 994.

Appelle, S. (1998). UFOs and the scientific method. Science, 281, 919. doi: 10.1126/science.281.5379.919b

Appelle, S. et al. (2014). “Alien abduction experiences.” In E. Cardeña, S.J. Lynn, and S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experience: Examining the scientific evidence, 213-240. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. 

Ashworth, C. E. (1980). Flying saucers, spoon-bending and Atlantis: A structural analysis of new mythologies. The Sociological Review, 28(2), 353-376.


Bader, C. D. (1995). The UFO contact movement from the 1950s to the present. Studies in Popular Culture, 17(2), 73-90.


Bader, C. D. (2003). Supernatural support groups: Who are the UFO abductees and ritual-abuse survivors? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42(4), 669–678.


Balch, Robert W. and Taylor, David. (1977). Seekers and saucers: The role of the cultic milieu in joining a UFO cult. American Behavioral Scientist, 20(6), pp. 839–860.

Ball, J. (1973). The zoo hypothesis. Icarus, 19(3), 347-349.


Ballester Olmos, V., & Bullard, T.E. (2017). The nature of UFO evidence: Two views. Available online:

Ballester-Olmos, V.J. and Heiden, Richard. (2023). The Reliability of UFO Witness Testimony. UFO Phenomena International Annual Review (UPIAR). Cooperativa Iniziative e Studi UPIAR s.c., Corso Vittorio Emanuele II n. 108 - 10121 Torino, Italy.

Banaji, M. R., and Kihlstrom, J. F. (1996). The ordinary nature of alien abduction memories. Psychological Inquiry, 7(2), 132-135.


Bartholomew, R. E. (1991). The quest for transcendence: An ethnography of UFOs in America. Anthropology of Consciousness, 2(1‐2), 1-12.

Bartholomew, R.E. et al (1991). “UFO abductees and contactees: Psychopathology or fantasy proneness?” Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 22(3), 215-222.

Biasco, F., and Nunn, K. (2000). College students' attitudes toward UFOs. College Student Journal, 34(1), 96-100.


Bisson C, and Persinger M.A. (1993). Geophysical variables and behavior: LXXV. Possible increased incidence of brain tumors following an episode of luminous phenomena. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 77(3_suppl), 1088-1090.


Boli, John. (2021). Small Planet in the Vastness of Space. Globalization and the Proliferation of UFOs, Aliens, and Extraterrestrial Threats to Humanity. In: Globalization/Glocalization: Developments in Theory and Application. International Studies in Sociology and Social Anthropology, 139, pp. 260–288. DOI:

Bowers, K. S., and Eastwood, J. D. (1996). On the edge of science: Coping with UFOlogy scientifically. Psychological Inquiry, 7(2), 136-140.


Bridgstock, M. (1982). A sociological approach to fraud in science. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, 18(3), 364-383.


Bullard, T. E. (1989). UFO abduction reports: the supernatural kidnap narrative returns in technological guise. Journal of American Folklore, 147-170.


Bullard, T. E. (2017). Skeptical Successes and Ufological Failures: Opportunities in Uncomfortable Places. Center for UFO Studies.

Callahan, P. S., & Mankin, R. W. (1978). Insects as unidentified flying objects. Applied Optics, 17(21), 3355-3360.


Carlotto, Mark. (2021). A Preliminary Analysis of Historical UFO Report Data. May 31, 2021. Available at SSRN: or

Caron, E. (2015). “Scientific investigation on unidentified anomalous phenomena (UAP),” in 6th Marie Curie Alumni Association (MCAA) Newsletter. Available online at:

Caron, E. & Faridi, P. (2016). To investigate or not to investigate? Researchers’ views on unexplored atmospheric light phenomena. Frontiers of Earth Science, Section on Atmospheric Science, 4, pp. 1-5.

Chen, Y. (2023). Unveiling Hidden Patterns in UFO Sightings: A Text Mining and Geostatistical Approach. UCLA. ProQuest ID: Chen_ucla_0031N_22119. Merritt ID: ark:/13030/m59m2r1p. Retrieved from:

Chequers, J., Joseph, S., and Diduca, D. (1997). Belief in extraterrestrial life, UFO-related beliefs, and schizotypal personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 23(3), 519-521.


Clamar, A. (1988). Is it time for psychology to take UFOs seriously? Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 6(3), 143-149.


Clamar, A. (1988). Symposium: The UFO experience: What psychotherapy tells us. Introduction, in: Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 6:3, 141-142


Clancy, S. A., et. al. (2002). Memory distortion in people reporting abduction by aliens. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111(3), 455.

Clancy, Susan A. (2005). Abducted. How People Come to Believe They Were Kidnapped by Aliens. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 

Clark, S. E., and Loftus, E. F. (1996). The construction of space alien abduction memories. Psychological Inquiry, 7(2), 140-143.

Cloete, R. et al (2023). Preface: Instrumentation and Software for the Detection and Characterization of Unidentified Aerospace Phenomena. Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation, 12(1).

Cloete, R., et al. (2023). Integrated Computing Platform for Detection and Tracking of Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAP). Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation, 12(1).

Cocconi, G. & Morrison, P. [1959]. Searching for Interstellar Communications.  Nature, 184, 844. doi:10.1038/184844a0

Colas, F., et al. (2020). FRIPON: A worldwide network to track incoming meteoroids. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 644, A53. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/202038649

Cole, G. H. A. (1996). Thoughts on extraterrestrials prompted by two contributions in a recent issue of Quarterly Journal. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 37, 257.


Condon, E. U. (1969). UFOs I have loved and lost. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 25(10), 6-8.


Cook, C. M., and Persinger, M. A. (2001). Geophysical variables and behavior: XCII. Experimental elicitation of the experience of a sentient being by right hemispheric, weak magnetic fields: interaction with temporal lobe sensitivity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 92(2), 447-448.


Cross, A. (2004). The flexibility of scientific rhetoric: A case study of UFO researchers. Qualitative Sociology, 27(1), 3-34.


Crowe, R. A., and Miura, C. K. (1995). Challenging pseudoscientific beliefs: Surveying evidence for exotic claims. Psychological reports, 77(3_suppl), 1263-1282.


Crumbaugh, J. C. (1959). ESP and flying saucers: A challenge to parapsychologists. American Psychologist, 14(9), 604–606.


Curtis, E. (2016). Science and technology in Elijah Muhammad’s Nation of Islam astrophysical disaster, genetic engineering, UFOs, white apocalypse, and black resurrection. Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, 20(1), 5–31.


Davis, Lorraine. (1988). A Comparison of UFO and Near-Death Experiences as Vehicles for the Evolution of Human Consciousness. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6(4), 240-257.


De la Torre, Gabriel. (2023). Psychological aspects in unidentified anomalous phenomena (UAP) witnesses. International Journal of Astrobiology. 23, 11 Dec. 2023.

Derr, J. & Persinger, M. (1986). Luminous phenomena and earthquakes in southern Washington. Experientia, 42(9), pp.991-999.

Derr J.S, and Persinger M.A. (1993). Geophysical variables and behavior: LXXVI. Seasonal hydrological load and regional luminous phenomena (UFO reports) within river systems, the Mississippi Valley test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 77(3_suppl), 1163-1170.


Devereux, P., McCartney, P. and Robins, D. (1983). Bringing UFOs down to earth. New Scientist, (1 September), 627-630.


Dewan, W. J. (2006). " A saucerful of secrets": an interdisciplinary analysis of UFO experiences. Journal of American Folklore, 184-202.


Dick, S. (1996). Other Worlds: The Cultural Significance of the Extraterrestrial Life Debate. Leonardo, 29(2), pp. 133-137.

Döbler, N., et al. (2023). Is there anybody out there? Can individual loneliness, need for closure, and religiosity predict the belief in extraterrestrial life and intelligence? Discover psychology, 3.

Dodd, A. (2018). Strategic ignorance and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence: Critiquing the discursive segregation of UFOs from scientific inquiry. Astropolitics, 16(1), 75-95.


Dorsch, Kate. (2019). Reliable Witnesses, Crackpot Science: UFO Investigations in Cold War America, 1947-1977. University of Pennsylvania, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 13808338.

Eghigian, G. (2014). ‘A transatlantic buzz’: flying saucers, extraterrestrials and America in postwar Germany. Journal of transatlantic studies, 12(3), 282-303.


Eghigian, G. (2014). The psychiatrist, the aliens, and" going native". Psychiatric Times, 31(11), 10-10.


Eghigian, G. (2015). Making UFOs make sense: Ufology, science, and the history of their mutual mistrust. Public understanding of science, [2017], 26(5), 612–626.


Emmerich, R. (2022). UAP as New Research Subject. Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg.

Escola-Gascon, Alex, O’Neill, Mary, and Gallifa, Josep. (2021). Beliefs and opinions about the existence of life outside the earth: The UFO Experiences Questionnaire (UFO-Q). Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 3(1), 100124.

Escolà-Gascón, A. et al. (2024). Impact of Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAPs) on air safety: Evidence from Airbus® TCAS/ROSE simulators. Journal of Air Transport Management, 119, August 2024, 102617.


Espírito Santo, D., and Vergara, A. (2020). The possible and the impossible: reflections on evidence in Chilean ufology. Antípoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología, (41), 125-146.


Forrest, D. V. (2008). Alien abduction: A medical hypothesis. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 36(3), 431-442.


Fournier, N. M., and Persinger, M. A. (2004). Geophysical variables and behavior: C. Increased geomagnetic activity on days of commercial air crashes attributed to computer or pilot error but not mechanical failure. Perceptual and motor skills, 98(3_suppl), 1219-1224.


Freitas Jr, R. A., & Valdes, F. (1980). A search for natural or artificial objects located at the Earth-Moon libration points. Icarus, 42(3), 442-447.


Fuller, B.A.G. (1952). Flying saucers. The Journal of Philosophy. 49(17), Aug. 14, 1952, 545-559.


Gamboa, M. (2021). Spiritual pilgrimages and UFO tourism in Uruguay: the case of La Aurora's cattle ranch. International Journal of Tourism Anthropology, 8(2), 162-178.


Geppert, A. (2012). Extraterrestrial encounters: UFOs, science and the quest for transcendence, 1947–1972. History and Technology: An International Journal, 28(3), 335-362.


Ghidina, M. J. (2019). Finding God in grain: Crop circles, rationality, and the construction of spiritual experience. Symbolic Interaction, 42(2), 278-300.


Grassi, F., Cocheo, C., and Russo, P. (2005). Balls of light: The questionable science of crop circles. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 19(2), 159-170.


Graves, Ryan, et al. (2023). Recommendations to Improve Acquisition and Management of Aviation-Related UAP Data. AIAA 2023-4323 Session: Scientific and Technical Advancements in UAP Understanding. Published Online: 8 June 2023 at:

Gray, R. H. (2015). The Fermi paradox is neither Fermi’s nor a paradox. Astrobiology, 15(3), 195-199.


Greenwood, B., and Davidson-Arnott, R. G. (2020). Tidal monitoring of a barrier breach: The mysterious case of the unidentified flying object (UFO). Journal of Coastal Research, 101(sp1), 56-61.


Haines, G.K. (1999). CIA’s role in the study of UFOs, 1947–90: A die‐hard issue. Intelligence and National Security, 14(2), 26-48.


Hall, R. L. (1996). Escaping the self or escaping the anomaly? Psychological inquiry, 7(2), 143-148.


Halperin, David J. (2021). Judaism and the UFO; with Emphasis on the Vision of Ezekiel. In: Handbook of UFO Religions, Chapter 3, pp. 79–102. DOI:

Hancock, L. J. et al. (2023). UAP Pattern Recognition Study: 1945-1975 US Military Atomic Warfare Complex. Scientific Coalition for UAP Studies (SCU), Fort Myers, FL.

Haqq-Misra, J. & Kopparapu, R. K. [2012]. On the likelihood of non-terrestrial artifacts in the Solar System. Acta Astronautica, 72, 15.

Haselhoff, E. H. (2001). Opinions and comments on Levengood WC, Talbott NP (1999). Dispersion of energies in worldwide crop formations. Physiologia plantarum, 111, 123–125.


Hauge, B.G. (2005). 10 Years of Scientific Research of the Hessdalen Phenomena. International Meeting “Le Ricerca Italiana nella Valle di Hessdalen, Norvegia.” Cecina, Livorno, Italy. March 2004.

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